Synthesis is a combination of a number of simple sentences into a new sentence. Synthesis can be divided into three types:
In simple sentence, there is only one verb, one clause and one idea. Simple sentence must have only one subject, verb combination. For example –
- The burger smells delicious.
- Sachin went to the store.
Combine two or more simple sentence into one simple sentence
a) By using a participle
Present, Past or Perfect Participle का प्रयोग करके दो Simple Sentence को एक Simple Sentence में बदल सकते है।
For example –
- I wrote a letter. It contained the truth. He praised me for it.
Into one simple sentence by using Present Participle:
- He praised me for my letter containing the truth.
In above sentence, Containing is used as Present Participle.
- Mukul lost his book. He searched for it.
Into one simple sentence by using Past Participle:
- Mukul searched for his lost
In above sentence, Lost is used as Past Participle.
- He had seen a lion coming. He fled.
Into one simple sentence by using Perfect Participle:
- Having seen a lion coming, he fled.
In above sentence, Having seen is used as Perfect Participle.
Note: Participle का प्रयोग उन्ही Simple Sentence को जोड़ने में किया जाता है जहां Simple Sentence पर दोनों का कर्ता एक ही हो।
b) By using Infinitive
Infinitive is formed with To + Verb First Form. Let’s check with following example:
- He is very fat. He cannot run.
Into one simple sentence by using Infinitive:
- He is too fat to run.
c) By using an Adjective
To combine two or more sentences into one simple sentence, we can also use adjective or adjectival phrase. For example –
- Narendra Modi is a leader. He is fearless.
Into one simple sentence by using adjective:
- Narendra Modi is a fearless leader.
In above sentence, Fearless is used as Adjective.
- There is a book on the table. It is the Ramayana.
Into one simple sentence by using adjectival phrase:
- The book on the table is the Ramayana.
d) By using an Adverb or Adverbial Phrase
We can combine two or more sentences into one simple sentence; we can also use Adverb or Adverbial Phrase. For example –
- Modi is a great leader. It is certain.
Into one simple sentence by using adverb:
- Modi is certainly a great leader.
e) By using a noun (As noun in Apposition)
- Arnav is the monitor of our class. He stands first in the class.
Into one simple sentence by using noun in apposition
- Arnav, the monitor of our class, stands first in the class.
In the above sentence, “the monitor of the class” is used as noun in apposition.
f) By using Nominative Absolute
Nominative absolute is a free standing part of a sentence which describes subject and verb. For example –
- It is a holiday. We shall not go to college.
Into one simple sentence by using nominative absolute
- It being a holiday, we shall not go to college.
In this sentence, “It being a holiday” is a nominative absolute.
g) By using a preposition with a noun or gerund
For example –
- Her husband died. She heard the news. She fainted.
Into one simple sentence by using preposition
- On hearing the news of her husband death, she fainted.
In this sentence, “hearing” is used as gerund.
Complex sentence is made up of one Principle Clause (Independent Clause) and one or more Subordinate Clauses (Dependent Clauses) connected to it.
In Complex Sentences, when we combine two or more simple sentences then one sentence become Principle Clause and other become subordinate clause.
Subordinate Clauses are of three types. By using these three clauses we can combine two or more simple sentences into one simple sentence.
Noun Clause: Noun clauses संज्ञा का कार्य करता है। Noun Clause acts as a Noun. Noun clause is a dependent clause. It begins with the word like – That, Whatever, What, How, When, Where, Whether, Which, Who, Whom, Why etc. For example –
- Honesty is the best policy. Everybody knows this.
By using Noun Clause,
- Everybody knows that honesty is the best policy.
Adjective Clause: Adjective clause is a clause that tells about the quality of a Noun or Pronoun.
Adjective clause begins with the word such as – When, Where, Who, Which and Why. For example –
- This is the town. I was born here.
By using adjective clause,
- This is the town where I was born.
Adverb Clause: Adverb clause modifies verbs, adverb and adjective. It begins with the word like After, If, Because, and Although.
Example 1 –
- I waited for my son. I waited till his arrival.
By using adverb clause,
- I waited for my son until he arrived.
- I was ill. I couldn’t go school.
By using adverb clause,
- I couldn’t go to school because I was ill.
- He worked hard. He failed in the examination.
By using adverb clause,
- Although he worked hard, he failed in the examination.
A Compound Sentence contains two independent clauses joint by co-ordinate conjunction.
Co-ordinate conjunctions are of four kinds.
- Cumulative Conjunction
- Adversative Conjunction
- Alternative Conjunction
- Illative Conjunction
Cumulative Conjunction – Cumulative Conjunction joins two clauses of same rank. ये समान भाव प्रदर्शित करने वाले कथनो को जोड़ते है। For example –
Sentence 1 – The Sun rose.
Sentence 2 – The fog dispersed.
By using cumulative conjunction –
The Sun rose and the fog dispersed.
Adversative Conjunction – Adversative Conjunction are used to express contrast. ये विरोधी भाव प्रदर्शित करने वाले वाक्यों को जोड़ते है। For example –
Sentence 1 – Wise men love the truth.
Sentence 2- Fools hate the truth.
By using Adversative Conjunction –
Wise men love the truth whereas fools hate it.
Alternative Conjunction – Alternative Conjunction presents two alternatives. इनमे दो विकल्प दिखाने वाले वाक्यों को जोड़ते है। For example –
Sentence 1- You should work hard.
Sentence 2 – You will fail.
By using Alternative Conjunction
You should work hard or you will fail.
Illative Conjunction – Illative conjunction (परिणाम सूचक) joins together two clauses in which 2nd sentence tells about the result of 1st sentence. For example –
Sentence 1 – I was very busy.
Sentence 2 – I could not go to the party.
By using illative conjunction
I was very busy therefore I could not go to the party.